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Oesophagus Cancer

Oesophagus Cancer

About Oesophagus Cancer

Oesophagus, also known as the food pipe, is a muscular tube like structure lined with squamous cells in its upper part and columnar cells in its bottom part. About 26 cm long, it is located between the windpipe (trachea) and the spinal cord. It is a part of the digestive system that carries food from the mouth to the stomach with the help of mucus produced by the gland in the muscular wall of oesophagus.

Oesophagus cancer, the cancer of oesophagus is a rare cancer that usually occurs in people over the age of 55. Depending upon the type of cells involved it can be squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma (columnar cells).


Risk Factors:

  • Tobacco and alcohol: Smoking cigarettes, pipes, hookah and heavy drinking are some of the main risk factor for oesophagal cancer
  • GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease): In GERD, the acid from the stomach back up into the oesophagus significantly increase the risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. Around 30% of oesophagal cancer is related to Gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • Barrett's oesophagus: A condition that affects the lower part of the oesophagus and can lead to oesophagal cancer. Barrett's oesophagus may be caused by GERD. Over time, stomach acid in the oesophagus can cause changes in the cells that increase the risk for adenocarcinoma
  • Infections
    • Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which can cause ulcer and inflammation resulting in adenocarcinoma
    • According to research people infected with Human papillomavirus are more likely to develop oesophageal cancer
  • Other factors: Disease like Achalasia (Valve insufficiency between oesophagus and stomach) or tylosis (genetic disorder) is linked with Oesophagal cancer

Symptoms:

There are very few symptoms of oesophagal cancer known, these include:

  • Difficulty in swallowing: Pain, burning sensation or cough when swallowing solid, semi solid or even liquids.
  • Other symptoms include vomiting, weight loss, weakness, indigestion and hoarness

Doctor should be consulted if any of the above mentioned symptoms occur on a regular basis.


Diagnosis:

  • Endoscopy: A thin flexible tube is inserted in the mouth and a small part of the tissue is taken which is viewed under the microscope to find any abnormalities (Biopsy)
  • X-ray: It is done to look for metastases
  • Barium swallow: It is a type of x-ray test that shows the outline of the inside of the digestive system to find abnormalities
  • CT/MRI scans of the chest and upper abdomen: It is done for staging purposes
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PETCT) scan: It is done for accuracy of staging

Prevention

  • Quit smoking
  • Drink alcohol in moderation
  • Maintain a healthy weight by regularly exercising
  • Include more fruits and vegetables in your diet

Treatment:

Cancer healer therapy helps to treat both types of oesophagal cancer. Medicines work on the principle of Immunotherapy and help to enhance the normal cell growth which can fight back with the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. These cancer cells result in the reduction or narrowing of the food passage. As cancer healer therapy is easy to take, in cases where patients have difficulty in swallowing, they can take the medicines without any side effects. When medicines act on cancer, patients get a better quality of life even in advanced stages and their chances of survival also improve.

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