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Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma

About Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare type of cancer which arises from skeletal muscle of the body. Skeletal muscle is the voluntary muscle attached to the bone and help to move the body. Rhabdomyosarcoma is more common in children but can also occur in adult.

Common sites of Rhabdomyososarcoma include:

  • Head and neck (near the eye, inside the nasal sinuses or throat, or near the spine in the neck)
  • Urinary and reproductive organs (bladder, prostate gland, or any of the female organs)
  • Arms and legs
  • Trunk (chest and abdomen)

Types of Rhabdomyosarcoma

There are three main types of Rhabdomyosarcoma:

  • Embryonal RMS: It is the most common type. This type occurs often in the head and neck area or in the genital or urinary organs
  • Alveolar RMS: It usually occurs during the teen years. This type occurs often in the arms or legs, chest, abdomen, genital organs, or anal area
  • Anaplastic RMS: This type rarely occurs in children

Risk factors:

The exact cause of Rhandomyosarcoma is still not known, however there are certain factors that can increase the cancer risk. These include:

  • Genetic conditions: These include Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Pleuropulmonary blastoma, Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Costello syndrome, Noonan syndrome
  • Age: Most common in children below the age of 10
  • Exposure to radiation: According to few studies, exposure to x-rays before birth can increase the risk of RMS

Symptoms:

The most common symptoms include:

  • Painful or painless Lumps
  • Other symptoms vary depending on the location of the tumor. Tumors in the nose or throat may cause bleeding, congestion, swallowing problems, or neurological problems if they extend into the brain. Tumors around the eyes may cause bulging of the eye, problems with vision, swelling around the eye, or pain.Tumors in the ears may cause pain, hearing loss, or swelling. Bladder and vaginal tumor may cause trouble starting to urinate or poor control of urine. Muscle tumors may lead to a painful lump. Bleeding in the nose, throat, vagina, or rectum

Diagnosis:

  • Physical exam and history : Examination of the body to check any lump or anything else that seems unusual
  • CT scan (CAT scan): Also known as computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography- A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the abdomen or pelvis, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)
  • Bone scan: A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein that travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy: A tissue or fluid is removed using a thin needle and is then examined under the microscope
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: Bone marrow, blood, and a small piece of bone is removed by inserting a hollow needle into the hipbone and is then viewed under the microscope to look for signs of cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry: A test that uses antibodies to check for certain antigens in a sample of tissue. This type of test may be used to tell the difference between different types of cancer
  • Cytogenetic analysis: A laboratory test in which cells in a sample of tissue are viewed under a microscope to look for certain changes in the chromosomes

Prevention:

The risk of adult cancers can be reduced by healthy changes in lifestyle (quit smoking, reduce alcohol consumption etc.) But in the case of RMS, very few risk factors are known (age, genetic condition etc.) which cannot be changed. The best solution for this is to be aware about the cancer, so if detected it can be treated on time.


Treatment:

Rhabdomyoscarcoma is treated with good results at cancer healer center through IMMUNOTHERAPY. This therapy boosts the immune system and enhances it so much so that it fights back against the cancer. It has no side effects and even children can take these medicines easily. This therapy helps to control progression, brings regression as well as helps to maintain a better quality of life. Post operated cases are dealt with good results in preventing the recurrence.

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